Indian Policy Timeline (The Indian Experience)
Federal Policies Toward Native Americans
|Extermination, Manipulation & Colonization of Indians
|The Civilization Act
|Removal Act- Authorized by President Andrew Jackson to remove Indians from the east to west of the Mississippi River.
|Indian Wars- Wounded Knee 1890 – Sioux Massacre.
|The Dawes Allotment Act- Divided up Indian Land and gave plots of land to the “head of household.” Much of original land allotted to Indians was later taken because they were unable to pay taxes. Government determined tribal roles and memberships.
|The Snyder Act- Until this time, Indians were not considered citizens of the United States.
|Wheeler-Howard Indian Reorganization Act- The “Indian New Deal” allowed tribes to establish elected tribal governments. Traditional chiefs, headmen, and medicine men are not recognized by the government.
|Termination Policy- Attempted to abolish federal supervision of Indian tribes. Effect was disastrous on those tribes that were terminated, most notably the Klamath Tribe of Oregon and Menominee Tribe of Wisconsin.
|Indian Civil Rights Act- Imposed regulations on tribes in order to guarantee individual Indians similar rights in tribal matters.
|Self-Determination Policy- President Richard Nixon condemned the Termination Policy and extended more control of Indian affairs to Indians themselves.
|Indian Child Welfare Act- Assures the preservation of the Indian family by protecting the proper placement of Indian children into Indian adoptive and foster homes.
Acknowledgement: Native Wellness Institute